In class, we've been learning about alternative reactions and the various mechanisms by which they can occur. In a substitution effect, a leaving group, usually a halide, is replaced by a nucleophile. Two systems have been defined for this effect, a unimolecular (SN1) device, and a bimolecular (SN2) mechanism.
The stepwise unimolecular mechanism takings through a carbocation intermediate. These types of reactions will be favored by the use of a substrate which could form a reliable carbocation, either through hyperconjugation or perhaps resonance. They can be promoted by the use of polar protic solvents which can help stabilize the carbocation and leaving group, and often the solvent also serves as the nucleophile. For this experiment, you'll be performing solvolysis reaction applying ethanol.
The concerted bimolecular reaction is without intermediate. The response is advertised by the use of a polar aprotic solvent and requires the presence of a strong nucleophile. For this experiment, you can expect to use sodium iodide (NaI) in acetone.
You will check nine substrates (Figure 1) under each one of these two response conditions to determine which substances will do SN1, SN2, not reaction or perhaps both. You will learn the formation of the precipitate upon reaction. Intended for the SN2 reaction, NaI is soluble in acetone but the byproducts of effect, NaCl or NaBr (depending on the leaving group of every compound) are generally not. For the SN1 effect, silver nitrate (AgNO3) is added to the ethanolic response. This chemical substance is sencillo in ethanol, but the silver precious metal ion will form absurde salts together with the leaving group (AgCl or AgBr). Therefore, observation of any precipitate in your test conduit will show that a reaction has taken place, plus the absence of a precipitate indicates that zero reaction provides occurred. You should note not just the presence of the precipitate, yet how long it was a little while until to form and whether heat was necessary.
The goal of this experiment should be to study these types of nine substrates...